My name is Vasyl Khrystiuk‎ > ‎process‎ > ‎main‎ > ‎

software process

Software Process - это процесс создания программного обеспечения, в котором процесс создания программного обеспечения разбивается на отдельные фазы/этапы, содержащие действия, которые можно планировать/управлять. 
Software Process это подмножество жизненного цикла программного обеспечения(SDLC)

 "waterfall"; "spiral"; "Agile software development"; "rapid prototyping"; "incremental"; and "synchronize and stabilize".[4]
waterfall, fountain, spiral, build and fix, rapid prototyping, incremental, and synchronize and stabilize


SDLC can be described along a spectrum of agile to iterative to sequential. Agile methodologies, such as XP and Scrum, focus on lightweight processes which allow for rapid changes (without necessarily following the pattern of SDLC approach) along the development cycle. Iterative methodologies, such as Rational Unified Process and dynamic systems development method, focus on limited project scope and expanding or improving products by multiple iterations. Sequential or big-design-up-front (BDUF) models, such as waterfall, focus on complete and correct planning to guide large projects and risks to successful and predictable results[citation needed]. Other models, such as anamorphic development, tend to focus on a form of development that is guided by project scope and adaptive iterations of feature development.

In project management a project can be defined both with a project life cycle (PLC) and an SDLC, during which slightly different activities occur. According to Taylor (2004) "the project life cycle encompasses all the activities of the project, while the systems development life cycle focuses on realizing the product requirements".[5]

SDLC is used during the development of an IT project, it describes the different stages involved in the project from the drawing board, through the completion of the project.

И добавить нечего.

Фазы SDLC:

Предварительный анализ -  conduct a preliminary analysis, propose alternative solutions, describe costs and benefits and submit a preliminary plan with recommendations. 

// от себя - скорее всего все "проэкты" завалятся еще на этом этапе

Conduct the preliminary analysis: in this step, you need to find out the organization's objectives and the nature and scope of the problem under study. Even if a problem refers only to a small segment of the organization itself then you need to find out what the objectives of the organization itself are. Then you need to see how the problem being studied fits in with them.
Propose alternative solutions: In digging into the organization's objectives and specific problems, you may have already covered some solutions. Alternate proposals may come from interviewing employees, clients, suppliers, and/or consultants. You can also study what competitors are doing. With this data, you will have three choices: leave the system as is, improve it, or develop a new system.
Describe the costs and benefits.

Методика проведения: feasibility study, или проще говоря, технико-экономическое обоснование.

Following are different components of the feasibility study:

// зачем я 5 лет учился этому в универе, если я сейчас учу это снова?
// блять надо было пойти на работу

системный анализ/определение требований -  Defines project goals into defined functions and operation of the intended application. Analyzes end-user information needs. The goal of system analysis is to determine where the problem is, in an attempt to fix the system. This step involves breaking down the system in different pieces to analyze the situation, analyzing project goals, breaking down what needs to be created and attempting to engage users so that definite requirements can be defined.

Дизайн системы  - Describes desired features and operations in detail, including screen layouts, business rulesprocess diagramspseudocode and other documentation. In systems design, the design functions and operations are described in detail, including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams and other documentation. The output of this stage will describe the new system as a collection of modules or subsystems.

The design stage takes as its initial input the requirements identified in the approved requirements document. For each requirement, a set of one or more design elements will be produced as a result of interviews, workshops, and/or prototype efforts.

Design elements describe the desired system features in detail, and generally include functional hierarchy diagrams, screen layout diagrams, tables of business rules, business process diagrams, pseudo-code, and a complete entity-relationship diagram with a full data dictionary. These design elements are intended to describe the system in sufficient detail, such that skilled developers and engineers may develop and deliver the system with minimal additional input design.

Разработка - The real code is written here.

Для подготовки к разработке нужно совершить еще один набор действий - настройку среды(Environments)

Environments are controlled areas where systems developers can build, distribute, install, configure, test, and execute systems that move through the SDLC. Each environment is aligned with different areas of the SDLC and is intended to have specific purposes. Examples of such environments include the:

  • Development environment, where developers can work independently of each other before trying to merge their work with the work of others,
  • Common build environment, where merged work can be built, together, as a combined system,
  • Systems integration testing environment, where basic testing of a system's integration points to other upstream or downstream systems can be tested,
  • User acceptance testing environment, where business stakeholders can test against their original business requirements,
  • Production environment, where systems finally get deployed to, for final use by their intended end users.

Интеграция и тестирование - Brings all the pieces together into a special testing environment, then checks for errors, bugs and interoperability.

Здесь сноска на тестирование

System testing vs integration testing vs functional testing

The code is tested at various levels in software testing. Unit, system and user acceptance testings are often performed. This is a grey area as many different opinions exist as to what the stages of testing are and how much, if any iteration occurs. Iteration is not generally part of the waterfall model, but usually some occur at this stage. In the testing the whole system is tested one by one

Following are the types of testing:

Подтверждение, установка, развертывание - The final stage of initial development, where the software is put into production and runs actual business.

Одним из моментов этого является Training and transition. Суть в том, что ПО должно быть сопровождено либо хорошей документацией, либо конечные пользователи должны пройти тренинг.  deployment Maintaining 


Обслуживание -  During the maintenance stage of the SDLC, the system is assessed to ensure it does not become obsolete. This is also where changes are made to initial software. It involves continuous evaluation of the system in terms of its performance.

Оценка - ome companies do not view this as an official stage of the SDLC, but is it an important part of the life cycle. Evaluation step is an extension of the Maintenance stage, and may be referred to in some circles as Post-implementation Review. This is where the system that was developed, as well as the entire process, is evaluated. Some of the questions that need to be answered include: does the newly implemented system meet the initial business requirements and objectives? Is the system reliable and fault-tolerant? Does the system function according to the approved functional requirements? In addition to evaluating the software that was released, it is important to assess the effectiveness of the development process. If there are any aspects of the entire process, or certain stages, that management is not satisfied with, this is the time to improve. Evaluation and assessment is a difficult issue. However, the company must reflect on the process and address weaknesses.

Удаление - In this phase, plans are developed for discarding system information, hardware and software in making the transition to a new system. The purpose here is to properly move, archive, discard or destroy information, hardware and software that is being replaced, in a matter that prevents any possibility of unauthorized disclosure of sensitive data. The disposal activities ensure proper migration to a new system. Particular emphasis is given to proper preservation and archival of data processed by the previous system. All of this should be done in accordance with the organization's security requirements.